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Sifaat Edit

Sifah is singular and Sifaat is Plural

Ista'ala/Tafkheem (elevated) Edit

Tafkheem ( تفخيم ) itself means ‘fatness’ or ‘thickness’ added on to a letter as a Sifah ‘Aaridah/redundant characteristic (noting that it still must be exercised). The elevation of the back of the tongue to the back roof of the mouth upon pronunciation of the letter, no matter what Harakah. During pronunciation, the back of the tongue is raised towards the upper palate. This will produce a thick, round sound. These are known as full mouth/thick letters and are thus pronounced with a full mouth For Ista'ala the tongue is just RAISED, whereas for Itbaaq it actually makes CONTACT. Within Tafkheem are categories and levels. the letter that are always pronounced heavy are called Mufakham letters.

Tafkheem Musta'liyah Edit

Certian letters have this Sifah natively. These are the seven letters of Isti’laa’ (elevation).The quality of Ista'ala' is found in the following seven letters which are called Musta'liyah:

Suad, Duad, Kha, Tua, Zua, Ghayn, Qaaf (Tua and Qaaf are also Qalaqah Letters) or خُصَّ ضَغْطٍ قِظْ.

These seven letters are always Mufakham and are present across four Levels of Tafkheem, referred to as “Maraatib al-Tafkheem“.

The rule of Tafkheem is deterined by the Vowel on the musta'liyah letter. When one of the 7 letters of Musta'liyah has Sukoon on it, the Vowel on the letter preceding it is looked at to determine the rule. If the preceding letter has a Sukoon also, we look at the letter preceding that(what precedes the preceding letter).

Levels of Tafkheem when the musta'liyah letter has a Vowel or a Sukoon.

  1. The strongest level of Tafkheem occurs when one of the 7 letters of musta'liyah has a Fattah on it, and is followed by an Alif
  2. The second level of Tafkheem occurs when one of the 7 letters has a Fattah on it, but is not followed by an Alif.
    • If the Saakinah letter has a Fattah before it, the strength of Tafkheem is in between the 2nd and 3rd Level
  3. The third level of Tafkheem occurs when one of the 7 letters has a Dammah on it.
  4. The weakest level of Tafkheem occurs when one of the 7 letters has a Kasrah under it

Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of Laam Edit

Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of the word Allah Edit
Tafkheem and Tarqeeq for Laam Saakinah. Edit

Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of Raa Edit

First, the letter Raa exists in two cases, The Mutatarrif and Ghair Mutatarrif. The Raa al-Mutatarrif is the Raa that exists at the end of a word. The Raa Ghair al-Mutatarrif: is the Raa that exists in the middle, or beginning of a word.

al-Mutatarrif Edit

There are 4 cases which you must pronounce the Raa with Tafkheem. When we refer to Raa Saakinah we also mean a Raa which takes on a Saakinah instead of it written Vowel due to a Waqf/Stopping.

  1. If the Raa Saakinah follows a Fattah
  2. If the Raa Saakinah follows a Alif
  3. If the Raa Saakinah follows a Dammah
  4. If the Raa Saakinah follows a Waw Madd Asli

There are 2 cases which you must pronounce the Raa al-Mutaterrif with Tarqeeq.

  1. If the Raa Saakinah follows a Yaa Madd Asli
  2. If the Raa Saakinah follows Kasr Asli (a letter, not Hamzat al-Wasl, with a Kasrah underneath it). Again if the letter before the Raa has a Sukoon on it, the letter before that is considered.
Ghair al-Mutatarrif Edit

There are 7 cases which you must pronounce the Raa of Ghair al-Mutatarrif with Tafkheem.

  1. If the Raa has a Fattah on it
  2. If the Raa has a Dammah on it
  3. If the Raa has a Sukoon on it, but succeeds a Fattah
  4. If the Raa has a Sukoon on it, but succeeds a Dammah
  5. If the Raa has a Sukoon on it, succeeds a Kasrah, but precedes an Isti‘laa’ letter which has a Fattah or Dammah on it. This occurs 5 times in the Qur'aan.
  6. If the Raa has a Sukoon on it, and follows “Kasr ‘Aarid“, a “Kasr ‘Aarid” is the Kasrah that is pronounced to start a word with a Hamzat al-Wasl, and is dropped to connect a preceding word.
  7. If the Raa has a Sukoon on it, and follows a “Kasr Mufassal“, as in the examples, a “Kasr Mufassal” is the Kasrah produced by connecting the preceding word with the Raa Saakinah(dropping the Hamzat-al-Wasl).

There are 2 cases which you must pronounce the Raa of Ghair Mutaterrif with Tarqeeq.

  1. If the Raa has a Kasrah underneath it
  2. If the Raa has a Sukoon on it, and succeeds Kasr Asli (a letter vowled with a Kasrah, not a Hamzat al-Wasl, with a Kasrah underneath it).

One instance which the Raa of Ghair Mutaterrif can be Mufakham or Muraqqaq (whatever is easier for the reader) is in the word "firqin", from Surah ash-Shu‘araa':63. This happens when the Raa is succeeding a Kasr Asli, and precedes a Isti‘laa’ letter which has Kasrah underneath it. It is up to the reader to do Tafkheem or Tarqeeq, whether stopping after the word, or continuing recitation.

Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of Alif Edit

The Alif we are referring to is the Hamza/Alif that is a Madd Asli. The Sifah is determined by the previous letter. If the previous is a musta'liyah letter(voiced with Tafkheem) then the Alif Madd will be the same. If the preceding letter is pronounced with Tarqeeq then it turns into a Tarqeeq.

Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of Ghunna Edit

Categories of Letters according to Sifah Edit

Halqiyyah - Hamza, Haa, 'Ayn, 'Haa, Kha, Ghayn

Lahawiyyah - Kaaf, Qaaf

Shajariyyah - Sheen, Jeem, Yaa

Haafiyyah - Duad

Tarafiyyah - Laam, Noon, Raa

Nit'iyyah - Tua, Taa, Daal

Lisawiyya - Zua, Dhaal, Thaa

Safiriyyah - Suad, Zaa, Seen

Shafawiyyah - Faa, Baa, Meem, Waw

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Musta’liyyah - Qaaf, Tua, Zua, Duad, Suad, Kha, Ghayn

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